Applications to Nuclear Medicine
Internal dose calculations for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine are based currently on standardized computational phantoms for reference adults, children, and pregnant women. In contrast to external beam therapy, in which a patientindividualized computational phantom is developed for each patient, doses from these standardized subjects may be modi ed using patient-speci c values of organ mass, for example. New technologies promise a new era for dose calculations, one in which imagebased computational phantoms may be used to develop more truly patient-speci c dosimetry. For the present, however, standardized dose calculations predominate. This chapter examines the state of the art in this eld, with descriptions of standard computational phantoms and methods for obtaining these estimates.