chapter  7
28 Pages

Flame Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

ByJihua Gou, Yong Tang

Polymeric materials are commonly used in everyday life such as in construction, electrical and electronics components, homes, and transportation. Due to their intrinsic chemical composition and molecular structures, they have poor resistance to Œre and, therefore, ”ame retardants (FRs) are usually incorporated into them to reduce ”ammability. The ”ammability behavior of polymers is deŒned based on the burning rate (rate of heat release), ”ame spread (”ame and pyrolysis), ignition characteristics (ignition time and

CONTENTS

7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................309 7.2 Laboratory Fire Testing ............................................................................. 311

7.2.1 Limited Oxygen Index (LOI) ........................................................ 311 7.2.2 UL 94 V ............................................................................................ 311 7.2.3 Cone Calorimeter Test ................................................................... 312 7.2.4 Microscale Combustion Calorimetry (MCC) ............................. 312

7.3 FR Polymer Nanocomposites ................................................................... 312 7.3.1 Layered Silicates ............................................................................. 312 7.3.2 Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsequioxanes ....................................... 313 7.3.3 Carbon Nanotubes ......................................................................... 314

7.4 FR Carbon Nanopaper and Nanocomposites ........................................ 315 7.4.1 Morphologies of Nanopapers and Nanocomposites ................ 316 7.4.2 Thermal Stability of Nanopapers and Nanocomposites .......... 321 7.4.3 Real-Time FTIR of Nanopapers and Nanocomposites ............. 326 7.4.4 Cone Calorimeter Test of Composite Laminates Coated

with Nanopapers ........................................................................... 329 7.4.5 Morphologies of Char Materials after Cone Calorimeter

Tests .................................................................................................. 331 7.5 Conclusions .................................................................................................333 References .............................................................................................................333

temperature), smoke production, and toxicity [1]. The most important Œre hazards can be classiŒed as heat, smoke, and toxic gases. The heat release rate is a much more critical parameter than the ignitability and the smoke toxicity, because a high heat release rate will result in a fast ignition and ”ame spread. Furthermore, it controls the Œre intensity and available time to escape for Œre victims.