# Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints

DOI link for Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints

Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints book

# Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints

DOI link for Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints

Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints book

Edited ByJohn Bickford

Edition 1st Edition

First Published 1998

eBook Published 28 April 1998

Pub. location Boca Raton

Imprint CRC Press

Pages 911 pages

eBook ISBN 9780429153570

SubjectsEngineering & Technology

Share

#### Get Citation

Bickford, J. (Ed.). (1998). Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints. Boca Raton: CRC Press, https://doi.org/10.1201/9781482273786

Presenting time-tested standard as well as reliable emerging knowledge on threaded fasteners and joints, this book covers how to select parts and materials, predict behavior, control assembly processes, and solve on-the-job problems. It examines key issues affecting bolting in the automotive, pressure vessel, petrochemical, aerospace, and structura

## TABLE OF CONTENTS

chapter |3 pages

#### It is possible to have hydrogen released

of these data are shown in Tables 13 and 14.

chapter |2 pages

#### of Alloys in Nitric Acid Solutions• at 50°C

of titanium fasteners with aluminum joints in wide-body aircraft. The superior corrosion of the titanium causes rapid attack by galvanic and exfoliation (a form of crevice)

chapter |4 pages

#### of six conditions that included

of friction of the bolt thread and bolt head contact of a lubricant is a function of

chapter |5 pages

#### Load Retention Performance of Various Locking Devices

5.2. Thread Sealing 5.2.1. Sealant Types

chapter |2 pages

#### of application of various finishes consult

of applying a thin metal coating onto of familiar items would include small appliance items such as toasters + 2e (electrons)__,. Ni (deposited nickel) + 2e H(hydrogen) + 20H-

chapter 6|1 pages

#### 2.4. Mechanical, Chemical, and Electrochemical Surface Treatment Prior to Electroplating Mechanical

of increased absorption of hydrogen by materials. Less of a 10 s maximum of either nitric, sulfuric, or fluoboric acid for activation of bolts

chapter 4|2 pages

#### 6.3. Processing Effects

of the part, it can cause sudden failure after of the part so merits.

chapter |3 pages

#### VARIATION IN SAMPLING

of a tolerance for some specific reason (engineering fit preferences,

chapter |13 pages

#### SOURCE MARKING: MANUFACTURER'S IDENTIFICATION

source-unless, of course, the product configuration or hardness precludes rea-

chapter 8|1 pages

#### BENDING STRESS

stress-bending. Bending can be introduced into the grip of a I= second moment of area (in.mm

chapter |1 pages

#### of engagement is one, are then selected until the basic design rule

Cl = dilation strength reduction factor of s/D between 1.4 and 1.9 and is plotted in Figure 7. Note of s/D greater than 1.9.

chapter 206|2 pages

#### Marbacher of Group A2 and A4 Alloys in Percent of Yield Strength at

7 .2. Estimating Screw Diameter

chapter |1 pages

#### of torque wrench (operator errors)

8.2.1. Tightening Torque Calculation for Metric Fasteners 8.2.2. Original Formula for Torque of the bolt and/or nut. The torque can be calculated very accurately. 2 + +

chapter |3 pages

#### = fastening system deflection = =

of preload lost due to a give relaxation R is equal to RldL.., + 0.001 2

chapter |6 pages

#### of the Belleville (in.)

4.1.6. Installation Procedure of proper and improper ways to install two Belleville springs in

chapter |3 pages

#### Performance Standards for Nonmetallic Resistant Element Type Prevailing

thread Strength grade of screw diameter on-torque, torque, torque, thread SAE SAE ASTM maximum minimum

chapter |1 pages

#### = p. Then

-kb kbb It might therefore seem that the gasket should be chosen to be very

chapter 20|5 pages

#### ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Design Rules for Bolted Flanges

ByGeorge Bibel

chapter 3|2 pages

#### 5. Calculation of Flange Stresses

/LfB of the flange. Factors f, of the adjustments described of differential equations to a "cookbook"

chapter |4 pages

#### of Amand Am

g,/gwhich would indicate an + gfor integral type flanges when f 1 (in.). of welds (in.), equal to or t.,

chapter |6 pages

#### (a) (b)

It is a little easier to get a counterbored surface parallel to the plate surface than to get

chapter |2 pages

#### of both ASD and LRFD specifies that standard

of design lead to comparable of multiple loads

chapter |4 pages

#### if slip into bearing

Applied Tension of the threaded part of the bolt (As.). Because different dimensional properties of the bolt (body

chapter 5|3 pages

#### 2. Slip Considerations at Factored Load Levels

5.3. Modifications to Accommodate Tensile Loads on

chapter |7 pages

#### of fastener assemblies under the real conditions that

of fastener assemblies is not specified in great detail. However,

chapter |1 pages

#### "grow" a little between passes, for example, even when there is no tem-

5/8-18 1 3/4 Grade 8 bolts with a torque of 150 lb-ft. This stretched the bolt 0.0015 in. of only 0.001 in. We reapplied

chapter |7 pages

#### of a bolted joint in which the joint members are rep-

of force on this joint instead of 20,000. Doubling the compressive force

chapter 24|9 pages

#### Tightening Groups of Fasteners in a Structure and the Resulting Elastic Interaction

ByGeorge Bibel

chapter 3|19 pages

#### 3. What the Data Reveals

It is suggested that this is true in general, but one should be careful to extrapolate data of this

chapter 7|5 pages

#### STRESS RELIEF THROUGH MJTs of the main bolt creates a bending

8.1. Installation frequently-do not of the main bolt/stud and the main thread of the tensioner are

chapter |6 pages

#### of Assembly 565

friction friction (50 "lo) of the threads: The faces of Unified or metric threads are angled at

chapter 2|5 pages

#### BOLT TENSION MEASUREMENT

M (for a specified bolt, tension), that provides the most realistic parameter for

chapter |1 pages

#### of bolting alloys. Recalibration of the tension measuring is possible, but often

4.1. C Micrometers 4.2. Depth Micrometers

chapter |8 pages

#### of the fastener is

of a given fastener is by testing. The test fixture must resemble the actual of the of Figure 2, the fastener spring rate is

chapter |1 pages

#### of "wrong answer" it gets when it measures

of course, as the temperature goes up or down. The of linear expansion of steel might be 6.48 10-in./(in.tF) or 11.7 10-mm/ (mmtC) (the coefficient varies somewhat with alloy content, etc.).

chapter |3 pages

#### in-but of

of the change in of the fastener, it is important that this gap be controlled. We don't car what it is. We

chapter |1 pages

#### "worse" was a big improvement over 4:1 and was acceptable on all but the most stubborn

9.1. Description of 1-10 (Fig. 12), were used; seven were 5/16"-18 SAE Grade 2 (locations 1, 2, 5,

chapter 9|1 pages

#### 2. Procedure

of each bolt by tensile testing each fastener in the joint. of the spring rates are given in Table 1 (see Section 9.3). of turn, until the desired bolt stretch is reached. of 2000 lb. ''fresh'' joints using fasteners with machined ends. Then use ultrasonic mea-

chapter |1 pages

#### of 2000 lb

of the torque control of 70 bolts were specially machined at both ends in preparation for the ultrasonic measurements

chapter 4|3 pages

#### 1. Basic Assumptions

if subsequent load and environmental of the 48-62% range established earlier-i.e., our target, in-service bolt

chapter 2|2 pages

#### CONSTRUCTING THE BASIC JOINT DIAGRAM

of this action on a single of Figure 1. This diagram looks much like a stress-strain of the force-deflection line reflects the stiffness of the bolt "spring,"

chapter 8|1 pages

#### NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR OF BOLTED JOINTS

of the joint apart. This situation is illustrated in Figure 17. The resulting joint

chapter 4|1 pages

#### 2. Behavior of Joints After Tightening Bolts to Yield

of its uniaxial of strength between the as- of the joint of locking methods is warranted. A change in design of the joint may be of locking bolts are available as well as locking nuts. of the loosening forces [4]. 5. EFFECT OF MANUFACTURING ON BOLT FATIGUE

chapter |2 pages

#### axis-will cause eccentric loading and lower

bowed)-will cause eccentric loading. rough-will cause high stress concentration runout-willlead to high stress concentration.

chapter |3 pages

#### of the fastener manufacturer-provide a low cost product in large

of fasteners. Over the years, an enormous amount of

chapter |5 pages

#### of the bolt. As shown in Appendix 1, if a rigid arm is used

of a smooth round bar in tension.

chapter |3 pages

#### A3.B. Dimensionless Parameters

of the notched strength ratio, which is the threshold stress

chapter 2|5 pages

#### BOLTED JOINT AND BLOCK/INCLINE ANALOGY

la shows a block loaded by gravity on an incline. Figure lb shows the forces

chapter |1 pages

#### of the bolt assembly shown in Figure 6. Part C was fitted with strain

of the oscillatory torque

chapter 41|1 pages

#### Statistical Design and Analysis of Multivariable Experiments

EXPERIMENTATION STRATEGY

chapter |1 pages

#### of Statistical Designs

+1 and of Treatment Combinations in a Complete Factorial of factors (f) 5 5 10 10 of levels of each factor (L) 2 2 3 2 3 of runs (E L')

chapter 2|8 pages

#### 6. The Eight-Run Design with All Factors at

Two Levels of eight runs and seven columns. Each row cor- 2.6.1. Using Tables 7 and 8 of factors to the columns + + + + + + + +

chapter |5 pages

#### of a Minimum Resolution IV Design

17-31 of 32• of factors of a complete factorial. The second group Box-Behnken designs where each factor is at

chapter |3 pages

#### of Multivariab/e Experiments

of the Model with Four, Eight, and 10 factors +DE) -AB - -BD -

chapter 3|2 pages

#### 2.5. Interaction of Higher Interaction Effects

3.3.1. Basic Decomposition of squares of the different terms of the model. We again restrict ourselves to the of variance decomposition equation is of y at the ith trial [Eq. (4a)] of y at the ith trial [Eq. (6b)] of freedom.

chapter |8 pages

#### of Multivariable Experiments

of Variance for the Reflected Design of Beta of Mean -3.755 676.726 33.44 -0.465

chapter |1 pages

#### of achieving fastener initial preload always indicates

CAPABILITY of predicting fastener tension accurately. Measurement of applied of clamp load It is a fundamental rule of analysis that if more than one variable can significantly

chapter |1 pages

#### M-alpha SR1-UDI2239

59.9 199.9 159.9 alpha Cdeg) 199.9 59.9 : : : ·············t-····; ·········:···· ··········

chapter |2 pages

#### M-alpha / SR1-UDI2230 0 . . . . . . 0 : : ................. /. ,/:

By................. ........................... .. 100.0

chapter 7599|1 pages

#### 7599

By······················[························\··············..·.·..·.·..·.,./.T...·.·.. : : ;;· : 49.9 ················· 39.9

chapter |1 pages

#### of approximately 85°, resulting in a clamping force of about

-alpha slope for the joint has been F-alpha SR1-UDI2239 ;:,;' ......................