chapter  12
20 Pages

ICT DIFFUSION AND THE DIGITAL DIVIDE IN TOURISM: KAZAKHSTAN PERSPECTIVE

ICT and Tourism ................................................................................... 288 Methodology ......................................................................................... 291 Kazakhstan Travel Industry and ICT Diffusion .................................... 293 ICT Adoption by Kazakhstan Consumers ............................................. 297 Conclusion ............................................................................................ 302 Keywords .............................................................................................. 303 References ............................................................................................. 303

ICT AND TOURISM

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be defined as manufactured products and services intended to enable or stimulate information processing, communication, use of electronic means to detect, measure or record physical phenomena or to control physical processes (OECD, 2001). Starting from the first Computer Reservation System (CRS) in the 1950s, information technology has both transformed the way in which customers plan and purchase their holidays and how the tourism industry promotes and sells its products and services.