School-Based Mental Health Intervention for Children in War-Affected Burundi: A Cluster Randomized Trial
WIETSE A. TOL, IVAN H. KOMPROE, MARK J.D. JORDANS, ALINE NDAYISABA, PRUDENCE NTAMUTUMBA, HEATHER SIPSMA, EVA S. SMALLEGANGE, ROBERT D. MACY, AND JOOP T. V. M. DE JONG
The 2009 Machel report estimates that just over one billion children and adolescents live in countries and territories affected by armed conflict . In 2011 alone, 37 armed conflicts were recorded globally, the majority in Africa (n = 15, 41%), Asia (n = 13, 35%), and the Middle East (n = 6, 16%) . Epidemiological studies have shown that armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of child mental health outcomes. These may range from resilience, that is, maintained mental health in the face of adversity, to increased psychological distress and heightened prevalence of mental
disorders including (symptoms of) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety disorders .