chapter  5
18 Pages

Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Community Composition in a River Infl uenced by a Wastewater Treatment Plant

Antibiotic resistance represents a significant global health problem due to the use and misuse of antibiotics, which favors the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. Since the first warning of antibiotic resistance [1], this phenomenon has increased dramatically and as a result, 70% of all hospital-acquired infections in the United States are resistant to at least one family of antibiotics [2]. The treatment of these infections leads to higher healthcare costs because these therapies require longer hospital stays and more expensive drugs. To confront this increasing problem, it is necessary to understand the ecology of antibiotic resistance, including their origins, evolution, selection and dissemination [3].