chapter  1
24 Pages

Inadequately Treated Wastewater as a Source of Human Enteric Viruses in the Environment

ByAnthony I. Okoh, Thulani Sibanda, Siyabulela S. Gusha

Human enteric viruses are obligate parasites of man that infect and replicate in the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts. Patients suffering from viral gastroenteritis or viral hepatitis may excrete about 105 to 1011 virus particles per gram of stool [1], comprising various genera such as adenoviruses, astroviruses, noroviruses, Hepatitis E virus, parvoviruses, enteroviruses (Coxsackie viruses, echoviruses and polioviruses), Hepatitis A virus, and the rotaviruses [2]. Consequently virus concentrations in raw water receiving fecal matter are often high; although viruses cannot reproduce in water they are still capable of causing diseases when ingested, even at low doses [3].