Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area
The optimization of wind turbine location in urban areas, where smalland medium-sized wind turbines could be installed by families, organizations, municipalities, or other property owners is particularly challenging.
In such limited-space urban applications, possible locations for such turbines are constrained by property boundaries and surrounding structures, particularly buildings and trees that affect wind fl ow in complex ways both locally and at high resolution –. The challenge often is compounded by diffi culty in obtaining high resolution urban maps that include the height and shape of all wind obstructions , . Moreover, it is of particular interest to avoid hazards to wildlife, such as bird and bat collisions , –.