Review of Chinese Outbound Tourism Research: Status Quo and Future Directions
The Chinese outbound travel market has been one of the fastest-growing international markets for destinations. Over the past 2 decades, China witnessed significant and fast transition from a planned economy to a market-driven economy, political liberalisation, and the resulting changes and diversification in both the economy and social and cultural values (Cai et al., 2008). Associated with these transformations is the emergence of the First and Second Wave of Chinese outbound tourists. While the First Wave is dominated by package tourists from first-tier cities in China, the Second Wave is characterized by the increasing shares of (a) young, “latte-drinking,” “avant-garde,” and experience-savvy travelers; (b) independent, self-or half-organized tours; (c) the Internet, BBS, forum, travel blogs, as well as friends and relatives as main information sources (CTA, 2014; Arlt, 2013). This extends opportunities for service providers outside conventional streams (Arlt, 2013). Yet, knowledge about this market is primarily gained from the first generation of Chinese tourists, with its applicability to the second generation unclear.