Nanotechnology: Tools Microbiologists Can Use to Reﬁne Their Research and Become Nanobiologists
Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding ﬁeld of science that deals with molecules and structures in the 1-to 1000-nm scale. Many of the current nanotechnology tools and techniques evolved from microfabrication applications of the semiconductor industry. Frequently, nanoscale structures are coupled to structures on the micrometer scale and larger for greater control. With the advent of the computer revolution, billions of dollars have been invested in recent decades to reﬁne microfabrication capabilities and optimize chip design. Nanotechnology has provided new tools to reexamine accepted scientiﬁc phenomena. A major milestone for nanotechnology was the formulation of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in 2000 that
identiﬁed nanotechnology as a dynamic science at the conﬂuence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology, and medicine (1). Scientists from these diverse ﬁelds are developing a collective understanding of how matter can be controlled and characterized at the micro-and nanometer range. The experiments performed in nanotechnology range widely and are often traditional research studies that use nanofabrication tools to reﬁne their studies.