New Developments and Opportunities in Cosmetic Microbiology
Microbiological research has provided a great deal of information in recent years. We have a good understanding of microbial physiology including energy metabolism, signal transduction, tolerance to stress, expression of genetic information, formation of bioﬁlms, microbial immunomodulation, and mechanisms of resistance. Cosmetic microbiology is a discipline in the ﬁeld of microbiology that is providing information from the molecular level (e.g., nanotechnology and genetic probes) to the global harmonization of test methods. The science has evolved past the ‘‘black box’’ stage in which we did not fully understand how to control microorganisms in raw materials and products to today where we conduct risk assessments to determine permissible microbial loads in raw materials, assess processing conditions to recognize hazard analysis critical control points (HACCPs), use miniaturized preservative efﬁcacy test methods, and rely on automated product release testing. It is a science, and there should be no product failures due microbial contamination; yet we are ﬁnding that we continue to have ‘‘opportunities’’ (i.e., new problems to solve) with international business and scientiﬁc/microbiological issues that arise as companies expand globally. The objective of this book is to provide a historical development of cosmetic and pharmaceutical microbiology in different regions of the world, to illustrate parallels and differences, and to build on this background
information to give readers an understanding of how microbiology is adapting to meet the challenges in the laboratory, in clinical studies, in the manufacturing plant, and in the world in which we market our products. This chapter will take a look at some of the new developments and opportunities in cosmetic microbiology.