Computed Tomographic Arteriography of the Upper and Lower Extremities
Following the introduction of computed tomographic (CT)
angiography in the early 1990s,1 applications were limited
for evaluating the upper and lower extremity vasculature.
This was directly related to the length of the complete upper
and lower extremity trees and the thin sections required
to robustly display the proximal (8-12 mm diameter), mid
(5-7 mm diameter), and distal (1.5-4 mm diameter) arteries
and veins. Slow scan speeds with single detector-row CT
scanners precluded thin section acquisitions in the entire
Z-axis of the extremity vascular systems. While CT angiog-
raphy (CTA) was embraced for aortic, pulmonary, head and
neck, mesenteric, and renal peripheral vascular applications,
catheter angiography remained the diagnostic modality of
choice for the upper and lower extremity vasculature.