Stone disease in children
Urinary calculi (stones) are rare in children, who are estimated to account for only 2-3% of all patients with stone disease. Infection remains a major aetiological factor, particularly in boys, but the proportion of affected children with an underlying biochemical predisposition appears to be increasing. For this reason, metabolic evaluation is essential for every child. The rate of stone recurrence is lower in children compared with adults. The majority of stone disease is now managed, as in adults, by lithotripsy or endourological techniques and, as a consequence, the incidence of open surgery has decreased dramatically.