Th e core of a PhD is the application of deep and original thought on the fundamental principles of your chosen subject backed by high-quality novel evidence. Th is was indeed a main theme in ancient philosophy – ancient Greek philosophical tradition broke away from using mythology to explain the world, and instead off ered an approach based on reason and evidence. PhDs off er ‘research training’ and having a PhD demonstrates that you have learnt and developed the necessary skills to be able to carry out novel research, analyse data and present your work to a high standard. Of course the expected outcome is that you will have also contributed a signifi cant piece of new understanding to your chosen fi eld. By their very nature PhDs are highly variable in terms of the types of research undertaken, the content and style of the thesis and expected outputs.