Animal Models for Reconstruction of Vertebral Column and Intervertebral Disc
This chapter describes spinal reconstruction without mobility and dynamic spinal reconstruction having intervertebral disc function. Large animals such as dogs, sheep, and monkeys, have been used for experimentation of vertebral column and intervertebral disc graft or prosthesis. For restoring normal spinal function, allogenic and autogenic grafts of intervertebral disc with the adjacent vertebral bodies, namely vertebral body/intervertebral disc complex, have been reported. Compared to allogenic and autogenic grafts, intervertebral disc prostheses have shown their bright future because of their availability. An artificial intervertebral disc was developed and used for lumbar fixation in beagles. The intervertebral disc spaces were kept at favorable conditions for at least one year. Autografting an intervertebral disc has no clinical application because there are no donor sites in the human body. Therefore, the alternatives are restricted to allograft or artificial intervertebral disc. Intervertebral disc allografts are only useful as spacers for a limited period of time and are unlikely to be functional motion segments.