Methods of Evaluation in Orthopaedic Animal Research
In orthopaedic animal research, clinical observation, radiography, macro-observation at necropsy, histological evaluation, and mechanical testing are used in most cases. This chapter outlines the more common methods used in orthopaedic animal research and most of them are only briefly mentioned. Histologic evaluations of bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, synovium, and other soft tissues have been used extensively in orthopaedic research. Descriptive histology and histomorphometry are the two main types of histological study. Developed in the 1980s, confocal laser scanning microscopy has already become a new star among the numerous imaging methods used in biomedical research. It has a wide variety of applications and its use has become widespread in orthopaedic research. Amazing advances in molecular biological technology have had an enormous impact on virtually every aspect of medicine, including orthopaedic surgery. Gene therapy offers novel possibilities for the treatment of inflammatory or rheumatoid arthritis.