chapter  11
18 Pages

Climate Change Impact on Black Pepper and Cardamom

ByK. S. Krishnamurthy, K. Kandiannan, B. Chempakam, S. J. Ankegowda

Abstract ................................................................................................. 202 11.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 202 11.2 Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) ................................................. 203 11.3 Small Cardamom (Eletteria cardamomum Maton) .....................211 11.4 Conclusions ................................................................................ 214 Keywords .............................................................................................. 214 References ............................................................................................. 215

ABSTRACT

India is the land of spices. Black pepper and small cardamom are popularly known as king and queen of spices, respectively. Both the crops are generally grown as rainfed crops and are grown in the temperature range of 10-35 °C. Both are climate sensitive crops and under the present scenario of climate change, both the crops may suffer. India has witnessed 0.6 °C increase in temperature so far and it is expected to increase further. Decrease in winter precipitation with a lower number of rainy days and more frequent drought and floods are also predicted. Agricultural production is likely to be affected because of increase in temperature, decrease in rainfall, increases in the frequency of drought, floods, heat and cold waves, etc. and associated risks such as emergence of newer pests and pathogens. Climate change in terms of increased temperature may reduce the yield of black pepper in plains but increase in minimum temperature in higher elevations may enhance pepper production. Cardamom production is likely to increase with temperature rise. But decrease in rainfall, rainy days and enhanced frequency of drought and heat waves are likely to bring down the production of these crops. So, the challenge before the scientists is to look for effective climate resilient agriculture strategies to mitigate the ill effects of climate change.