Phytopathosystem Modification in Response to Climate Change
Multidimensional effect of climate change pays paramount impact on disease development on agricultural crops. The kind of pathogenic species and their growth trend determine the magnitude of this impact. After a series of ‘breath-less efforts’ mankind has now recognized that change in climate is drastically affecting plants covering the globe by developing diseases in new unwanted condition developed through air, water and soil pollution. This chapter focuses on various air pollutants influencing quite a few phytopathosystems. The most possible impact of change in atmospheric concentration (including gases, water droplets, etc.) can probably be reflected through Fig. 10.1. Change in air composition is generated by means of changes in different strata of the atmosphere and gas emission (Figs. 10.1 and 10.3). Similarly, introduction of exotic species (e.g., Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. graminis) traveling a long-distance and urbanization helping the foreign member to establish in a new area (Bradley et al., 2012; Gurr et al., 2011; Matyssek et al., 2012; Régnière, 2012). The newly developed composition of air is making suitable those neglected pathogen that are now contributing in development of major diseases (Prospero et al., 2009). Such nonimportant pathogens were out of the top-list category of pathogen due to noneconomical feature under agricultural perspective. McKinnon et al. (2012) made a comprehensive study on impact of climate change on the world economy. The effect of change in climate contributed to death of almost 400 thousand people per annum, which is ultimately of a cost for more than US$ 1.2 trillion.