Climate Change: Impact on Pollinators’ Biodiversity in Vegetable Crops
One of the most important ecosystem services for sustainable crop production is the mutualistic interaction between plants and animals pollination. The International community has acknowledged the importance of a diversity of insect pollinators to support the increased demand for food brought about by predicted population increases. Changing weather condition due to increased temperature, erratic rainfall, and enhanced incidence of diseases are all set to affect the production trend of various vegetable crops. According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, it is defined as “Change in climate over time, either due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.” The most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The global mean surface temperature is predicted to increase by 1.4 to 5.8°C from 1990 to 2100. If temperatures rise by about 2°C over the next 100 years, negative effects of global warming would begin to extend to most regions of the world (IPCC, 2001). Developing countries in the tropics will be particularly vulnerable. Latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in ecological and agro-economic zones, land degradation, extreme geophysical events, reduced water availability, and rise in sea level and salinization are postulated (FAO, 2004).