Integrated Turfgrass Weed Management
The concept of integrated pest management (IPM) evolved in the early 1970s. Although IPM has lacked a single commonly accepted definition since it first appeared in the literature in 1967, two key elements involve the use of multiple control tactics and the integration of pest biology knowledge into the management system (Smith and van den Bosch, 1967; Kogan and Bajwa, 1999; Buhler, 2002). Integrated weed management (IWM), an offshoot of IPM or a component of whole-crop management systems, is gaining renewed interest in all areas of crop production. For simplicity, and for the subject of reference in this chapter, namely turfgrasses, IWM could be considered as a proactive effort to manage weeds by providing good growth conditions to turf, thereby reducing the opportunities for weed infestation, and, when necessary, implement a broad array of control strategies to resolve a weed problem. Elmore (1996) considers IWM to be a reintroduced practice that has become widespread across all crop production areas. With a goal of equipping cropping systems unfavorable for weeds and to minimize the effect of those that survive, IWM may be best achieved by integrating cropping-system design and weed management strategies to an economically and environmentally viable practice (Buhler, 2002).