Learning Groups for Implementation of Integrated Weed Management: Principles and Practical Guidelines
The chapters of this handbook present a rich and promising range of options for ecologically based weed management. These chapters show that many or most farming operations can be planned and practiced-i.e., finetuned-in ways that take account of weed ecology. Of course, this finetuning of farming operations in recognition of weed ecology is subject to many constraints, as noted in this chapter, yet for many farming operations such fine-tuning is feasible and highly effective. The operations will then have a heightened negative effect, or at least a reduced positive effect, on populations of undesirable weed species. Many chapters of this book give at least broad guidelines for fine-tuning a number of aspects of farming operations. A sampling of these aspects includes spatial and temporal diversification on a variety of scales, primary and secondary tillage operations, applications of nutrients and irrigation, selection of crop varieties, fallow management, and development of decision trees to guide in-season management. Overall, we can conclude that a significant knowledge base exists that can support implementation of holistic, integrated weed management schemes (IWM).