Integrated management of urban diffuse pollution in the Southern African region
The multidisciplinary nature of diffuse pollution problems requires an integrated and systematic approach to their solution and the management of water resources. The integration with respect to regulatory instruments and corresponding monitoring practices for their enforcement, including biomonitoring, has been discussed. The spatial variation of storm and natural water quality at a small catchment level and interactions has been presented, including groundwater characteristics at selected locations. Management tools and practices, suitable for application in the region, have been presented in the light of the integrated cycled approach to the subject, together with social, economic and financial considerations. The most common sources of diffuse pollution have been discussed, and appropriate abatement techniques and methods suggested. Directions for future developments have been put forward.