Diffuse pollution in high-density (low-income) urban areas
Diffuse pollution problems typical for low-income residential areas have been discussed in terms of sources, monitoring, regulation and control. The problem has been illustrated by a case study, where the water quality of a natural stream was assessed to evaluate the impact of runoff from storm water generated in low-income residential areas in Harare, Zimbabwe during the 2001–2002 wet season. Results show considerable pollution load with respect to TP, ammonia, Fe and Pb. An evaluation of pollution fluxes along the stream, generated by different types of land use patterns within the study area, showed that the major flux is associated with the dumping of solid waste along the streambed. The analysis of appropriate practices for monitoring, control and abatement of diffuse pollution in such areas is presented and emphasis is made on the need to implement source control and pollution prevention measures, and also to incorporate community education and public involvement activities as part of pollution abatement programs.