Chemical Approaches to Managing Arthropod Pests
Chemicals continue to be the principal means of managing numerous arthropod pests. Furthermore, the use of effective chemicals has made possible the profitable production of many commodities in the presence of potentially devastating pests. Some rather obvious advantages of chemical control are (a) satisfactory potency, (b) rapid activity, (c) low cost, (d) availability, and (e) the opportunity afforded individual users to take unilateral action. Disadvantages of chemical control are (a) risks and hazards to humans and other nontarget vertebrates from broad-spectrum action of chemicals, (b) decimation of valuable biological pest control agents, (c) transient nature of chemical control, (d) ability of pests to develop resistance to chemicals, (e) pest resurgence, (f) induction of new arthropod pest problems, and (g) the fact that some economic losses still occur when chemicals are used. The merits and limitations of chemical control are more completely discussed by Newsom and Brazzel  and Herzog et al. . When several chemicals are available to ameliorate pest problems, selection of the actual chemical to be used should be based on all factors affecting the benefit/risk equation . Although cost and efficacy tend to be overriding factors, emphasis also should be placed on IPM, IRM, and environmental considerations, for it is these factors which will determine longterm efficacy and availability.