chapter  6
34 Pages

Trunk

ByJaap H. Van Dieën, Maury A. Nussbaum

CONTENTS Introduction .........................................................................................................109 6.1 Definitions and Measurement ................................................................. 110 6.2 Trunk Anatomy.......................................................................................... 114 6.3 Effects of Trunk Posture ........................................................................... 117

6.3.1 Trunk Postures and Mechanical Load ....................................... 119 6.3.1.1 Tensile Tissue Strain ....................................................... 119 6.3.1.2 Net Moments ...................................................................122 6.3.1.3 Muscle Activation ...........................................................124 6.3.1.4 Spinal Forces and Intra-Discal Pressure .....................126