II. Structure 276 III. Nomenclature 276 IV. Physical Properties 277
V. Methods of Synthesis 280 A. General preparative methods 280 B. Commercial manufacturing practices:
aliphatic amine oxides 280 VI. Chemical Reactions 282
A. Rearrangement-decomposition 282 B. Substitution 283
VII. General Applications 283 VIII. Commercial Markets 288
IX. Storage and Handling 292 X. Toxicity 292
XI. Analytical Procedures 293 References 293
This volume is dedicated to a discussion of cationic surfactants. Nevertheless, an important class of compounds exists that might well be considered, in some respects, to be a member of this large group but also display structures that can be regarded as electrically neutral. In fact, many feel this group to be more accurately described as "nonionic" in character . The compounds in question are commonly called amine oxides. To be more nearly correct, these materials should be referred to as N-oxides of tertiary amines.