chapter  3
2 Pages

Imidazoline Surfactants

ByGary W. Earl

I. Introduction 102 II. Definition of Structure and Nomenclature 104

III. Preparation Methods 104 A. DET A and acids 105 B. AEEA and methyl esters 105 C. DETA with triglycerides 105 D. Bisimidazolines and quaternaries from TETA

and triglycerides 105 IV. Stability of Imidazolines 106 V. Imidazolinium Derivatives 108

A. Imidazolinium methyl sulfate 108 B. Sodium chloroacetate adduct 108 c. Ethyl acrylate adduct 108

VI. Structural Complexity of Imidazoline Surfactants 109 A. Imidazoline amphoterics 109 B. Imidazoline quaternization 116

VII. Analytical Methods 116

To honor the memory of colleague, eminent chemist, and good friend, Dr. Wilhelm Melloh (1926-1985), Technical Director of RE\VO Chemische Werke, Steinau, West Germany. He made significant contributions to our current understanding of imidazolines, for which we are most grateful.