chapter  5
24 Pages

Cationic Surfactants Derived from Nitriles

ByRichard A. Reck

I. Introduction 164 II. Nitriles 164

A. Production 164 B. Properties 165

III. Primary Amines 165 A. Production 165 B. Properties 168 C. Uses 169

IV. Secondary Amines 169 A. Production 169 B. Physical properties 170

V. Tertiary Amines 170 VI. Diamines 172

VII. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 173 A. Production 173 B. Uses 174

VIII. Amphoterics 175 A. Production 176 B. Properties 177 C. Uses 178

IX. Alkoxylated Amines 18'0 A. Production 180 B. Uses 182 References 182

The introduction of the nitrogen atom into fatty acids opened up a large spectrum of fatty nitrogen derivatives. Ralston and co-workers [1] did extensive research on these compounds. Since then the derivatization of fatty nitriles has resulted in a 400-million-pound/ year industry.