Experimental Models of Status Epilepticus
This chapter discusses each model of Status epilepticus (SE) from the perspective of how to induce SE, pathophysiology and neuropathology, postseizure care and behavior, the efficacy of standard anticonvulsant drugs, as well as the advantages and limitations of each model. Several experimental models of SE have been developed that approximate specific aspects of the clinical event and the subsequent alterations that occur in neuronal structure and function. The kainic acid model of SE is one of the most extensively studied seizure models. An important factor that must be taken into account when comparing the effectiveness of potential anticonvulsant treatments on SE is that the longer SE persists the more difficult it is to control. Kainic acid induces SE accompanied by extensive neuronal damage, synaptic reorganization, and spontaneous recurrent seizures in adult rats. An important advantage of being able to induce SE in a slice preparation is that it provides an easy way to test new anticonvulsant drugs.