Complex Oxide Electro- Optic Modulators
One of the major achievements in the ˜eld of optical ceramics was the development of transparent ferroelectric oxide Pb1-xLax(Zr1-yTiy)1-x/4O3 (PLZT). PLZT with a composition of Pb0.92La0.08(Zr0.65Ti0.35)0.98O3 was ˜rst produced by Haertling and Land in 1969 at the Sandia National Laboratories . Incorporation of lanthanum (La) ions into the lattice enhances the densi˜cation rate of PZT ceramics, leading to porefree homogeneous ceramic microstructures. Since its inception, a great deal of research has been carried out on PLZT and a far deeper understanding of many interrelated properties and phenomena associated with it has been achieved . Advantages of PLZT include high optical transparency from visible to mid-infrared wavelengths, large electro-optic (EO) coešcients, very fast EO response, its solid state nature, the ability to make it into large crystals, its isotropic optical properties, and the potential, as thin ˜lms, to integrate it with many other optical materials and semiconductors. ™ere have been many successful application demonstrations of PLZT such as displays, ultrafast optical shutters, fast EO modulators, optical tunable ˜lters, laser beam de¤ectors, variable optical attenuators, and polarization compensators .