chapter  14
16 Pages

Reliability of Lithium Niobate Modulators

ByHirotoshi Nagata

All devices deployed in optical communication systems are required to operate reliably for a minimum of 20 years under ˜eld conditions. ™e reliability of lithium niobate (LN) modulators is primarily linked to device performance under temperature changes and under the applied DC bias voltage. In this chapter, we describe the underlying physics and material science associated with reliable performance.