Optical Beam Forming for Microwave and Millimeter Waves
A critical technology to optical beam forming for microwave and millimeter-wave applications is a high-performance electro-optic modulator. For many applications, commercially available LiNbO3 modulators oŸer sušcient performance, with <3-dB optical loss, <2-V switching voltage Vπ, and a modulation bandwidth exceeding 20 GHz. Research continues into developing new modulator technologies, with high linearity, low Vπ, ultralow-power consumption, and extremely low optical loss for cascading multiple modulators. Low cost and capability for integration are also a consideration in systems that may require tens or hundreds of devices.