chapter  17
Plasma Functionalization of Nanotubes
ByZhiqiang Chen, Lu Hua Li, Xiujuan J. Dai, Ying (Ian) Chen, and Xungai Wang
Pages 30

Plasma states can be divided into hot plasmas and cold plasmas (nonequilibrium plasmas), according to the degree of ionization of the plasma. Hot plasmas are almost fully ionized and have very high temperatures of electrons and heavy particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Nonthermal plasmas, also known as cold plasmas, have a low degree of ionization and consist of lowtemperature atoms, molecules or ions, and relatively high-temperature electrons (Meyyappan 2011). Nonthermal plasmas are a highly developed technology for surface functionalization. ey have become a convenient and versatile tool for the surface modication of various materials used in a wide range of elds, including biomaterial and biomedicine (Cantini et al. 2012, Chen et al. 2007, Fridman et al. 2008, Gomathi et al. 2008, Kuzuya et al. 2008), nanotechnology (Ariga et al. 2012, Gupta et al. 2007, Meyyappan 2011), energy conversion (Tao et al. 2011), and environmental control (Gomez et al. 2009, Moreau et al. 2008, Sreenivasan and Gleason 2009, Vandenbroucke et al. 2011).