chapter  11
10 Pages

CO2 for Gastrointestinal Bleeding

WithIrvin F. Hawkins

Detection of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding sites can be extremely challenging and is of

great importance to interventionalists since embolization frequently provides definitive

therapy. CO2 digital subtract angiography (DSA) has increased the detection rate by

50% compared to iodinated contrast for many reasons. The most important reason is

probably its low viscosity, which improves flow through very small arterial “tears.”

Unfortunately, bowel gas motion and uncooperative patients frequently compromise

DSA imaging.