chapter  14
10 Pages

CO2 Upper Extremity Venography

WithKyung J. Cho

CO2 is a safe and effective contrast agent for venous injection studies. We use CO2 for

both diagnostic venography and interventional procedures for the treatment of occlusive

lesions of the central veins. Because of its lower viscosity, CO2 can consistently visual-

ize the subclavian vein despite the injection of the gas into a peripheral vein. The

current indications for CO2 venography are to provide a “road map” of the veins of

upper extremities prior to surgical arteriovenous fistula (AVF) placement, transvenous

pacer insertion, and venous interventions (including thrombolysis, angioplasty, and

stent placement).