chapter  19
14 Pages

Aneurysms, Arteriovenous Malformations, and Arteriovenous Fistula

WithKyung J. Cho

Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

should be the initial approaches to any patients with suspected vascular lesions. Angio-

graphy is performed to further define the abnormalities seen on the noninvasive

imaging and to provide a road map before intervention. CO2 has a place as a contrast

agent in the evaluation of vascular lesions and assists in percutaneous intervention.