Aneurysms, Arteriovenous Malformations, and Arteriovenous Fistula
Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
should be the initial approaches to any patients with suspected vascular lesions. Angio-
graphy is performed to further define the abnormalities seen on the noninvasive
imaging and to provide a road map before intervention. CO2 has a place as a contrast
agent in the evaluation of vascular lesions and assists in percutaneous intervention.