chapter  2
14 Pages

Physical Properties and Flow Dynamics of CO2

WithKyung J. Cho, David R. Cho, Kyung S. Song, Irvin F. Hawkins

A thorough knowledge of the physical properties and flow dynamics of CO2 is

fundamental to the safe and successful performance of CO2 angiography. Unlike iodinated

contrast medium, CO2 has no known hypersensitivity reaction and nephrotoxicity

(1-4). The gas is also inexpensive. If used correctly, CO2 is a safe contrast agent in

imaging all circulations, except in the thoracic aorta and its branches.