chapter  3
8 Pages

CO2 as a Venous Contrast Agent: Safety and Tolerance

WithKyung J. Cho

CO2 has been used increasingly as a contrast agent in both the arterial and venous

circulations, particularly in patients with hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast material

and renal insufficiency. CO2 can be used as a contrast agent for upper extremity veno-

graphy, wedged hepatic venography, fine-needle transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic

shunt (TIPS), and splenoportography (1-5). With the advent of the plastic bag system

(6), the safety and ease of gas delivery has been improved, allowing multiple injections

from the CO2 bag.