Visceral CO2 Digital Subtraction Angiography
CO2 is the only safe contrast agent for patients with hypersensitivity to iodinated
contrast material and renal failure. It can be used as an alternative contrast agent for
visceral angiography for most indications, including the evaluation of anatomy, mesen-
teric occlusive lesions, detection of GI bleeding, and vascular interventional procedures
(embolization, angioplasty, and stent placement). An understanding of the properties of
the CO2 will help to use the gas as a contrast agent safely and effectively (1). The
properties of CO2 are high solubility, buoyancy, low viscosity, and compressibility.
Once sufficient angiographic practice and skills with the use of CO2 have been mastered,
the use of CO2 will become easy and beneficial in visceral angiography. This chapter
discusses the techniques, angiographic findings, the clinical applications, the advantages
and disadvantages, and potential complications of CO2 visceral angiography.