chapter  6
16 Pages

Visceral CO2 Digital Subtraction Angiography

WithKyung J. Cho

CO2 is the only safe contrast agent for patients with hypersensitivity to iodinated

contrast material and renal failure. It can be used as an alternative contrast agent for

visceral angiography for most indications, including the evaluation of anatomy, mesen-

teric occlusive lesions, detection of GI bleeding, and vascular interventional procedures

(embolization, angioplasty, and stent placement). An understanding of the properties of

the CO2 will help to use the gas as a contrast agent safely and effectively (1). The

properties of CO2 are high solubility, buoyancy, low viscosity, and compressibility.

Once sufficient angiographic practice and skills with the use of CO2 have been mastered,

the use of CO2 will become easy and beneficial in visceral angiography. This chapter

discusses the techniques, angiographic findings, the clinical applications, the advantages

and disadvantages, and potential complications of CO2 visceral angiography.