Explaining the causes of bribery from an offender perspective
The precise scale of bribery is unknown due to undetected and unreported cases, but has been estimated at $1 trillion paid annually worldwide. A European Commission study estimated that 12.5% of public procurement contracts are corrupt, 37.5% bear the hallmarks of corruption and the average loss to corruption is 3.65%. Pack wolves are the apex predators, deliberately choosing bribery as a strategy for achieving their collective ambitions. They can be organised criminals or groups of employees who cooperate on multiple acts of corruption. Lone wolves are predatory occupational corruptors who act alone. They deliberately embrace corruption as a strategy, habitually engaging in multiple acts to support their personal aspirations. They are often corrupt buyers or government officials who demand bribe payments in return for contracts or services. Lower down the predatory scale, hedgehogs are unexpected lone predators who are mostly viewed as harmless, worm-eating mammals, but they can also deal with adders.