Ballast stressing on a railway track and the behaviour of limestone ballast
ByK. Giannakos & A. Loizos
Pages 8

The load was calculated so that the pressure under the plate would be correspondent to the Region R1 for the concrete sleepers strength (see also Giannakos et al., 2007), i.e. 120 kN. The base of the bucket was replaced with a “pad” made of synthetic felt.