Joint transfers and joint reconstruction
Joints which have lost normal movements consequent to traumatic arthrodesis or congenital malformations are candidates for surgical reconstruction. Several techniques have been proposed to restore movement in joints using different types of transfer like partial or complete replacement of joints by allografts or epiphyseal replacements using pedicled apophysis on growing bones. Limitations of these techniques include the anatomical scarcity of donor sites (autografts, allografts) and the poor scientific evidence of the revascularization of the transplanted structure. However, clinical results have confirmed that these surgical techniques can improve the movements in reconstructed joints.