Repair of nerve defects by grafts was first attempted by Phillipeaux and Vulpian in 1870 and then by Albert (1876). However, later it was abandoned because of inconclusive results. It was not until 1972 that Millesi validated the fascicular nerve grafting method of repair by reporting good results (Millesi et al 1972). In 1974, the first vascularized nerve graft performed by Taylor seemed to provide a solution for clinical situations with long segmental losses and poorly vascularized beds unfavourable for the take of conventional grafts (Taylor and Ham 1976). Over time, however, vascularized grafts have not proved their superiority over conventional grafts and their early promise has not been borne out due to the scarcity of suitable donor sites.