Restenosis remains a major limitation of coronary angioplasty. A complex pathophysiological process, restenosis is thought to be the result of an exaggerated healing response induced by vascular injury subsequent to balloon predilatation, stent implantation and high pressure postimplantation balloon dilatation. The metallic prosthesis itself can provoke an immunological response with associated chronic inflammatory reaction. This chapter reviews the potential role of inflammation induced by stent implantation in the pathogenesis of restenosis. The effect of modulation of inflammation to prevent restenosis is evaluated.