Molecular Mechanisms of Respiratory Virus-Induced Inﬂammation
Inﬂammation is a central feature of many lung diseases, including bronchial asthma. Although the speciﬁc characteristics of the inﬂammatory responses and the site of inﬂammation differ between one disease and another, they always involve recruitment and activation of inﬂammatory cells and changes in structural cells of the lung. Inﬂammatory responses are associated with an increased expression of a cascade of proteins that includes cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, enzymes, adhesion molecules, and receptors. In most cases the increased expression of these proteins is the result of enhanced gene transcription: many of the genes are not expressed in normal cells under resting conditions but they are induced in the inﬂammatory process in a cell-speciﬁc manner. Transcription factors regulate the expression of many genes, including inﬂammatory genes and may play a key role in the pathogenesis of respiratory inﬂammatory diseases.