Antioxidant Vitamins and Antiretroviral Therapy During HIV Infection: Effects on Oxidative Damage
Micronutrient deficiencies and early immune responses such as activation of phagocytes and microphages in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are responsible for an increased oxidative stress and a weakened antioxidant defense in HIV patients. The oxidative stress associated with HIV infection is important for the progression of the disease because the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates the nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB), which is obligatory for HIV replication. Antioxidants are known to improve immune function and inhibit activation of NF-κB, so they may play important role in HIV prevention. In a murine AIDS (MAIDS) model, vitamin E and multiple antioxidant vitamins were showed to improve immune function and to inhibit activation of NF-κB. EPC-K1, a phosphodiester compound of vitamin E and vitamin C, is considered one of the inhibitory agents of NF-κB.