Insulin Signaling Pathway and GLUT4-mediated Glucose Transport in the insulin resistant muscle
Insulin is an extraordinary hormone that has been implicated in various cellular events including lipogenesis, cell growth and differentiation, glycogen and protein synthesis, and glucose metabolism. It is now evident that systemic glucose homeostasis and metabolism consists of complex interactions between multiple factors, hormones and tissues. Insulin increases glucose uptake into peripheral tissues, mainly muscle and fat, and decreases hepatic glucose output. The regulation of blood glucose by insulin is achieved by metabolic interactions among muscle, liver and adipose tissue.