Urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa are growing at a faster rate than in any other region in the world. The supply of water to many rapidly urbanising areas of sub-Saharan Africa depends upon groundwater supplied by manually pumped wells, spring discharges, and production boreholes equipped with motorised pumps. Studies of the quality of urban groundwater in this region are few so that the impacts of urbanisation on groundwater quality remain poorly defined. Although it is clear that further research is required to establish current conditions, this chapter reviews the available evidence of groundwater contamination in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa from the few existing studies (e.g. Longe et al., 1987; Faillat, 1990; Malomo et al., 1990; Uma, 1993; Nkotagu, 1996; Barrett et al., 1998) and draws from detailed hydrogeological investigations conducted in rural areas (e.g. Chilton & Smith-Carington, 1984; Houston & Lewis, 1988; Wright & Burgess, 1992; Taylor & Howard, 1994; Chilton & Foster, 1995; Taylor & Howard, 1998a, 2000). Recommendations for further study are also discussed.