Acute toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and bulk ZnCl2 to rats
Nanoparticles are defined as small objects that have at least one dimension in the range of 1-100 nm. Compared to particles in micro scale, Nanoparticles (NPs) due to their small size and large-specific surface area, show different degrees of biological effect (Esmaeillou 2013). NPs offer a great possibility for biomedical application, not only to deliver pharmaceutics, but also to be used as novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches (Caruther 2007). The small sizes NPs imply that they could get close to a biological target of interest. Furthermore, metallic NPs can be made to resonantly respond a time-varying magnetic ﬁeld, with advantageous results relater the transfer of energy to the particles (Pissuwan 2006, Kogan 2007). This leads to its use as a hyperthermic agent, thereby delivering toxic amounts of thermal energy to targeted bodies such as tumors (El-Sayed 2006, Kogan 2006, Zharov 2006). In additional, NPs was also used in the food industry, paints, electronics, sports, environmental cleanup, cosmetics, sunscreens, etc (Asharani 2008). At the same time, the novel and useful properties possessed by these engineered nanomaterials can lead to unpredictable outcomes in terms of their interactions with biological systems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand and assess the potential toxicity of NPs to avoid their adverse effects on human health.