ABSTRACT: The monuments of the Acropolis survived until today, through centuries of perils and changes in use and in form, wounded but still standing. Their continuous exposure in the action of damaging factors (natural or man made) during their long history has provoked major or minor failures, related to geometry and/or mechanical strength of their structure and materials. Those damages had to be confronted and thus an integrated restoration project began in 1975 and is continued until today. This paper, giving an insight to the restoration programme, focuses on the geotechnical issues of the monumental complex. It presents the geotechnical data collected as well as the most significant studies and interventions already conducted. Moreover, the seismotectonic regime of the area is presented with a commentary review of literature for the historical and recent seismicity of the broader area, as well as a quotation of earthquake effects on Acropolis hill and monuments. Specific macroseismic observations of strong earthquakes of different source properties are mentioned. Finally, a brief description of the strong motion array deployed on the Acropolis hill and some conclusions from the accelerographic records are presented.